American Federal, State and Local Civil Service was established to incentivize hiring employees paid by taxpayers, usually at a lower than market rate, after they passed an entrance examination with the expectation to be vested in their position after a probationary period. After vesting, government employees have legal assurance they may keep their job as long as they wish, unless they violate rules. Most government employees have excellent health, vacation and retirement benefits funded by taxpayers. To advance, government employees must pass tests and fulfill job requirements for higher positions. This concept is opposite the “At Will Employment” that exists in most American Commercial Businesses.
Although Civil Service was created to empower a special class of employees with rights and job protections, many Government Agencies have allowed their employees to join Unions for collective bargaining.